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【检验美国高中生英文水平的100个单词】词源解析之四

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    2019-3-9 17:21
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    [LV.9]以坛为家II

    xngnln 发表于 2013-8-22 18:06:29 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
    上次的“词源解析三”的链接为:http://emagic.org.cn/thread-28049-1-1.html

    如果还没有完整看过这 “据说”是【检验美国高中生水平的100个单词】的朋友,先检验一下自己认识多少个,可先点击链接:http://emagic.org.cn/thread-27085-1-1.html





    34. totalitarian/ˏtəutalɪˈteərɪən; toˏtæləˋtɛrɪən/(totalit=total + -ity 名词后缀 = totality 全体,全部,整个,

    -arian …主义的;国家或政府体制掌握着全部权利的→)

    a. (disapproving) (of a country or system of government) in which there is only one political party that has complete power and control over the people 极权主义的

    n. A practitioner or supporter of such a government 极权主义者



    也有认为该词来自total + authoritarian 权力主义的



    a totalitarian regime/state

    They feared that totalitarians might yet conquer the entire world.



    lie 是个很简单的词,加个前缀成:



    35. belie/bɪˈlaɪ; bɪˋlaɪ/(be- to make, cause to seem 使,使显得,lie说谎 )

    vt. 1. to give a false impression of sb/sth 掩饰,遮掩;

         2. to show that sth cannot be true or correct 显示(某事)不正确,证明(某事)错误



    Her energy and youthful good looks belie her 65 years.

    Government claims that there is no poverty are belied by the number of homeless people on the streets.



    “米”即 meter 是度量单位:



    36. parameter/pəˈræmɪtə(r); pəˋræmətɚ/(para-旁,met 量度 → meter 来自希腊语 metron 度量,尺度;旁边的量度、尺度→)

    n. 1. [常pl.]something that decides or limits the way in which sth can be done  界限,范围;

        2. A constant in an equation that varies in other equations of the same general form 参数



    The researchers must keep within the parameters of the experiment.
    The central office sets/establishes the parameters which guide policy at the local level.





    汉语里有“显摆”、“摆谱”的说法,“说”出来也可“显”,dictionary 里有词根 dict “说”,digital 里的词根 dig 为“显示”,拉丁语 dicere 意思为“说出,提出,证明”,它们都属同源词根。印欧词根*deik-, *deig- 意思就是 to show, pronounce solemnly 。



    dic, dict, dig 说,显示,对准



    37. paradigm/ˈpærədaɪm/ para-旁,dig显示,m=-ma名词后缀;在旁边并排显示以作为→)

    n. 1. (formal or technical) a typical example or pattern of sth 典范;范例;样式;

        2. (grammar) a set of all the different forms of a word(语法)词形变化表



    The war was a paradigm of the evil and destructive side of human nature.



    知道前缀 re- “后,回”和前缀 pro-“前”,reciprocal 的意思差不多就知道了:



    38. reciprocal/rɪˈsɪprəkl; rɪˋsɪprəkl/(re-后,ci=-cus形容词后缀,reci代表reco(s) 向后转,pro- 前,c-=cus形容词后缀,proc代表procos向前转的,-al…的;向后也向前的→)

    a. involving two people or groups who agree to help each other or behave in the same way to each other 相互的,互惠的



    The two colleges have a reciprocal arrangement whereby students from one college can attend classes at the other.

    The department said many countries had reciprocal agreements for health care with Britain.



    富兰克林即 Franklin 意为“自由民”,法国国名 France 来源于法兰克王国名,在日耳曼语中原意为“自由的”。知道了“法国”,离知道 enfranchise 的意思就不远了:



    汉语中, 有些人喜欢“引吭(háng)高歌”;有些人则不喜张扬而“一声不吭(kēng)”。“吭”的两种读法反映了汉语中 k-h 的对应,英语中k-h, k-ch 均可对应。此处涉及k-g-h 音变系列。



    french franch, frank  自由



    franchise/ˈfræntʃaɪz; ˋfræntʃaɪz/ (franch自由,-ise使成为…状(态);本指摆脱奴役,束缚的自由→授予特权→使具有出售或选举的自由→)

    vt.  授予(或出售)特许经销权(或经营权)

    n. 1. (公司授予的)特许经销权;(国家授予的)特别经营权,特许;

       2.  获特许权的商业(或服务)机构;3.(公民)选举权



    39. enfranchise /ɪnˈfræntʃaɪz; ɪnˋfræntʃaɪz/(en- ‘make’ 使,franch ‘free’, -ise  ‘become’ 使成为…状(态);使有选举的自由→)

    v. (formal) (fml 文) to give sb the right to vote in an election 给予(某人)选举权



    Women in Britain were first enfranchised in 1918.



    反义词:disenfranchise

      

    seek 是“寻找”,sake 本表示需要“找出”错误、争辩的“缘故,理由”,由 same-,homo- 以及 know 与 gno(incognito)的例子,不难理解:



    seek, sak, heg  找出



    印欧词根形式为*sāg- ‘to seek out’。



    40. hegemony/hɪˈgemənɪ/(和seek相比,s-h对应,k-g对应,heg找出→跟踪找到路→领路,领导→hegemon带路人,指挥官→领袖,-mony状态,情况;充当领袖对其它国家进行控制→)

    n. (plural hegemonies) (formal) control by one country, organization, etc. over other countries, etc. within a particular group 支配权;领导权;霸权



    The three nations competed for regional hegemony.



    字母C可以发K的音。来自美语的movie由moving pictures即“移动的画面”缩写而成,而英国人用的cinema来自cinematography“电影摄影(或放映)机;电影院;电影放映”,但 cinema最终来自希腊语的kinama ‘motion’ 即“运动; 移动”,即 cinema 的 cine 对应 kinetic 中的 kine:



    41. kinetic/ kɪˈnetɪk/(kine 运动,来自希腊语kinein ‘to move’,→kinet(os) ‘moved’,是kinein的动词形容词,或-tic=-ic 形容词后缀,出现在希腊语来源的词,移动的、运动的→)

    a. (technical) of or produced by movement 运动的; 运动引起的

    其实,exciting, cite, excite, excitement, incite, recite, solicit, solicitor 都含有同源成分。



    kinetic energy



    词源上eight 与oct(o) - 相对应,night 对应的是noct-, 而noct- 最终来自拉丁语nox “夜,黑夜”,即noct(i)- 来自nox的所有格。

    作为组合词素的equi- ,意思就是equal。



    42. equinox/ˈiːkwɪnɔks/(equi 相等,nox夜;黑夜和白天时间长度相等的时间→)

    n. one of the two times in the year (around 20 March and 22 September) when the sun is above the EQUATOR and day and night are of equal length 昼夜平分时,二分时刻;春分; 秋分



    In the Chinese calendar, the Spring Equinox always occurs in the second month and the Autumn Equinox in the eighth month.



    依维柯即 IVECO 是 Industrial vehicle Corporation 的缩写,最简单的词 way 的古英语拼写是 weg,也与 vehicle  相关。

    路上是走人、走车、运东西、运人的,而词根的意思正与此相关:印欧词根形式为*wegh-“走,去,以车辆运输”。



    way, vey, veh  运送,路



    43. vehement/ˈviːəmənt/(veh →拉丁语 vehe(re)  to carry, convey, 运送,飞越,急速前进 Chamers认为ment是受拉丁语mens ‘mind’ 所有格mentis的影响,本指rushing 冲的,快速移动的→)

    a. (written) showing very strong feelings, especially anger (感情)强烈的,激烈的;(尤指)愤怒的



    Despite vehement opposition from his family, he quit school and became an actor.

    They launched a vehement attack on the government's handling of environmental issues.
  • TA的每日心情
    擦汗
    2018-12-3 16:01
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    [LV.1]初来乍到

    kkjg2 发表于 2018-12-3 22:01:30 | 显示全部楼层
    哈哈 支持啊 可以换头像咯
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  • TA的每日心情
    擦汗
    2018-12-3 16:01
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    [LV.1]初来乍到

    kkjg2 发表于 2018-12-4 10:28:08 | 显示全部楼层
    不错,支持下!!!!!!!!!!
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